Use of moral

Essence / existence
Truth as category

Spirit incarnate
Virtual knowledge
Mind function of body

Superficial will
Human nature
Relativity of morals
Law & government
Reason & spirit
Free will

British philosophy
False steps

From Interpretations of Poetry and Religion [#497 1899]

We may venture to say that among the thinkers of all nations Aristotle was the first to reach the conception of what may fitly be called God [a being spiritual, personal, and perfect, immutable without being abstract, and omnipotent without effort and with out degradation]. . . . The analytic study of Nature (a study which at the same time must be imaginative and sympathetic) could guide us to the conception of her inner needs and tendencies and of what their proper fulfilment would be. We could then see that this fulfilment would lie in intelligence and thought. Growth is for the sake of the fruition of life, and the fruition of life consists in the pursuit and attainment of objects. The moral virtues belong to the pursuit, the intellectual to the attainment. Knowledge is the end of all endeavour, the justification and fulfilment of all growth. Intelligence is the clarification of love.

Poetry & Religion at 46 (The Dissolution of Paganism) [#497 1899]

From Interpretations of Poetry and Religion [#496 1900]

The environing world can justify itself to the mind only by the free life which it fosters there.

Poetry & Religion at 5 (Preface) [#496 1900]

From Introduction and Reason in Common Sense [#498 1905]

Mind is the body's entelechy, a value which accrues to the body when it has reached a certain perfection, of which it would be a pity, so to speak, that it should remain unconscious; so that while the body feeds the mind the mind perfects the body, lifting it and all its natural relations and impulses into the moral world, into the sphere of interests and ideas.

Common Sense at 206 (How Thought Is Practical) [#498 1905]

From Introduction and Reason in Common Sense [#499 1905]

Spirit is useless, being the end of things: but it is not vain, since it alone rescues all else from vanity.

Common Sense at 212 (How Thought Is Practical) [#499 1905]

From Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies [#502 1919]

What happens to exist can take very good care of itself, and is quite indifferent to what people think of it; and as for us, if we possess such cursory knowledge of the nearer parts of existence as is sufficient for our safety, there is no reason why we should attend to it too minutely: there's metal more attractive in discourse and in fiction. Mind, as Hobbes said, is fancy, and it is the things of fancy that greet us first and reward us best. They are far from being more absurd than the facts.

It is only what exists materially that exists without excuse, whereas what the mind creates has some vital justification, and may serve to justify the rest.

Soliloquies at 196-197 (Occam's Razor) [#502 1919]

From Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies [#503 1922]

The whole of natural life, then, is an aspiration after the realization and vision of Ideas, and all action is for the sake of contemplation.

Soliloquies at 227 (Reversion to Platonism) [#503 1922]

From Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies [#505 1922]

Spirituality, then, lies in regarding existence merely as a vehicle for contemplation, and contemplation merely as a vehicle for joy.

Soliloquies at 228 (Reversion to Platonism) [#505 1922]

From Soliloquies in England and Later Soliloquies [#506 1922]

The Ideas were our true friends, our natural companions, and all our safe knowledge was of them; things were only vehicles by which Ideas were conveyed to us, as the copies of a book are vehicles for its sense.

Soliloquies at 230 (Ideas) [#506 1922]

From Scepticism and Animal Faith: Introduction to a System of Philosophy [#508 1923]

The contemplation of so much of essence as is relevant to a particular life is what Aristotle called the entelechy or perfect fruition of that life.

Scepticism at 130 (Essence and Intuition) [#508 1923]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#510 1946]

[C]ontact with objects, when at last it becomes safe and pleasant, serves only to fill the mind with images and insights, that is to say, with graphic signs flowering of themselves in the mind.

Idea of Christ at 65 (The Son of God) [#510 1946]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#511 1946]

The pure, legitimate, divine offspring of being is seeing, and the ripe fruit of seeing is comprehending. That which biologically is derivative, the Son, becomes morally the crown and fulfilment of the whole cycle: for without the Word that utters and reveals the heart the whole dynamism of the heart would remain barbarous and blind.

Idea of Christ at 202 (The Fatherhood of God) [#511 1946]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#512 1946]

[T]he motive which prompted theologians to attribute absolute immutability to God and to life in heaven was not love of life but respect for the ideal. They could not, however, express this respect (which they deeply felt, as spirit always must) without employing laudatory rhetorical terms which attribute to it an impossible life and existence.

Idea of Christ at 230 (The Animal Psyche and the Supernatural Soul) [#512 1946]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#513 1946]

Facts thus culminate for the spirit in ideal revelations, in attainments or perfections of form: that is the only ultimate function that passing existence can have.

Idea of Christ at 231 (The Animal Psyche and the Supernatural Soul) [#513 1946]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#514 1946]

[The supernatural] arises in the effort to do justice at once to nature and to the ideal, and to vindicate the superiority, or rather the exclusive ultimate value, of the latter.

Idea of Christ at 233 (The Animal Psyche and the Supernatural Soul) [#514 1946]

From The Idea of Christ in the Gospels; or, God in Man: A Critical Essay [#515 1946]

Yet spirit may silently pass on in what might seem the opposite direction when it abandons or despises all this prudential and blind knowledge—blind because it has nothing distinct to offer in the place of the sensuous or poetic images that it transcends—and reverts, now with an enthusiastic worship, to the cult of ideas. For what profit is there in discovering the order of nature or the history of mankind except that we may thereby protect and sweeten the transit of the soul through the world, and chose eternal objects of study and love?

Idea of Christ at 248 (Self-Transcendence) [#515 1946]

From Dominations and Powers: Reflections on Liberty, Society, and Government [#516 1951]

The complete art of living would therefore be economic in its actions for the sake of being wholly liberal in its enjoyments.

Dominations at 152 (Economic and Liberal Interests in Religion) [#516 1951]

From Physical Order and Moral Liberty: Previously Unpublished Essays of George Santayana [#517 1969]

[L]iving beings possess, or may develop, feeling and imagination; in which lies the essence of mind, and the ultimate good of existence.

Lachs' Physical Order at 101 (Two Idolatries) [#517 1969]

Number of quotations (including supressed): 22

Santayana writes that "the body is an instrument, the mind its function . . . and reward of its operation." Common Sense '05 at 206 (Introduction).

This same note is struck memorably by Santayana in his essay, The Genteel Tradition in American Philosophy, which contains the following language in its last paragraph:

[T]he peculiarity of man is that his machinery for reaction on external things has involved an imaginative transcript of these things, which is preserved and suspended in his fancy; and the interest and beauty of this inward landscape, rather than any fortunes that may await his body in the outer world, constitute his proper happiness. By their mind, its scope, quality, and temper, we estimate men, for by the mind only do we exist as men, and are more than so many storage-batteries for material energy. Let us therefore be frankly human. Let us be content to live in the mind.

Winds '13 at 215.

Early in the essay, The Moral Background, Santayana writes:

Although Americans, and many other people, usually say that thought is for the sake of action, it has evidently been in these high moments, when action becomes incandescent in thought, that they have been most truly alive, intensively most active, and although doing nothing, have found at last that their existence was worth while. Reflection is itself a turn, and the top turn, given to life. . . . [W]hen reflection in man becomes dominant, it may become passionate; it may create religion and philosophy . . . .

Character & Opinion '20 at 3-4.

The quotations here gathered elaborate on this theme.






* = Required.